St. Dominic (1170-1221) was the founder of the Order of Preachers, that is Black Friars or Dominicans (natch). He was born in Caleruega, Spain, near the Benedictine abbey of St. Dominic of Silos. His parents wished to dedicate his life to the Church, and he studied theology at Palencia University around age 14.
A hard-working student, he actually owned his own books as a demonstration of his commitment to his studies, given the vast expense of books in a world of manuscripts and copyists. However, he demonstrated an even greater commitment in his life, a commitment to the ‘book of charity’, when he sold these books amongst other possessions in order to help the needy during a famine in Palencia.
In part due to this charitable activity, he was made canon of Osma Cathedral while still a student and took on his duties enthusiastically, living a communal life under the Rule of St. Augustine, which was later to form the backbone of the Order of Preachers he was to found. In 1201, Dominic became prior of the chapter when his friend Diego de Azevedo become bishop of Osma.
On embassies for Alfonso VIII of Castile, Dominic became aware of the spiritual danger of the Cathars, or Albigensians, as well as the need for evangelising the pagan Cuman peoples. As part of his desire to evangelise the lost and reform the heretics, he visited Citeaux, home of St. Bernard, which had been a centre of anti-Albigensian activity.
Dominic and his friend Diego were in contact with various Albigensians and, while noting the spiritual danger of their teachings, were also aware of the sincerity of the followers of this syncretistic religious group with roots in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean lands. Since the Albigensians lived lives of strict poverty, Diego and Dominic arranged the missions of those they sent to live a similar lifestyle and to seek to convert the Albigensians to the Catholic faith through reasoned discussion, not coercion.
Diego and Dominic spent several years in southern France preaching amongst the Albigensians, and won a number of converts to orthodox Christianity, including several who chose to enter the religious life. Yet the Albigensians were numerous, and the workers were few. Soon, after an Albigensian assassinated a papal legate, an all-out ‘crusade’ was launched against the French Albigensians, and Dominic’s approach of reasoned evangelism came into peril as the Catholic forces sought to exterminate Albigensianism by exterminating Albigensians.
In 1215, Dominic went to the Fourth Lateran Council, which sought to organise the Church in a manner conducive to the propagation of the Gospel through the preaching of the Word and the reasoned battle against heresy. The fruit of Dominic and his companions’ activities in the midst of the energetic Pope Innocent III was the establishment in 1216 of the Order of Preachers which took the Rule of St. Augustine as its own along with Constitutions appended by Dominic.
The Order of Preachers is technically not a monastic order but an order of mendicant friars. Mendicant is a fancy word for beggar. Like the Franciscans, Dominicans were meant to be dependent not on their own or worldly resources but on the charity of those around them and of the Church. They were to move from place to place on foot (sometimes they would acquire horses and nowadays have been seen in all sorts of newfangled technologies) and to preach in the towns of Europe and dispute with the heretics, especially the Albigensians. They followed the call to ‘evangelical poverty’, taking seriously Jesus’ commands to sell everything and give to the poor.
This wandering, begging lifestyle of shabby clothing and sleeping on the floor is the one Dominic had as his own from before the establishment of the Order. Combined with his charismatic personality, his mode of life as well as personal virtues made him the sort of person the Albigensians, who sought purity and perfection, would listen to. His ascetic lifestyle made inroads for the Gospel.
The Order spread rapidly during Dominic’s lifetime and now stretches around the world, seeking to bring the light of the Gospel of Jesus with it through preaching as well as through theological education to save people from the pitfalls of heresy.
His feast is August 8.
Most of this information came from Butler’s Lives of the Saints: August.
More on Dominicans
Flirting with Monasticism. This highly readable book (recommended here) gives an introduction to the spiritual life of the Dominican order and how you, too can benefit from monastic spiritual practices.
St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Catherine of Siena, Blessed Fra Angelico (there are others, but I’m not really familiar with them at all)